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Mannitol injection
Mannitol injection
 Adverse reactions
(1) water and electrolyte imbalance is most common.
① fast the body can cause a large number of intravenous mannitol mannitol accumulation, a rapid and massive increase in blood volume (especially the acute and chronic renal failure), leading to heart failure (especially when determined dysfunction), dilutional hyponatremia, even can cause hyperkalemia;
② inappropriate excessive diuresis leading to hypovolemia, increased oliguria;
③ transfer to a large number of cells within the extracellular fluid can cause tissue dehydration, and can cause central nervous system symptoms.
(2) chills and fever.
(3), difficulty urinating.
(4) thrombophlebitis.
(5) mannitol extravasation can cause tissue edema, skin necrosis.
(6) allergies cause skin rashes, hives, difficulty breathing, anaphylactic shock.
(7), dizziness, blurred vision.
(8) hypertonic cause thirst.
(9) permeability of kidney disease (or mannitol kidney>, mainly seen in the high-dose rapid intravenous infusion. The mechanism is not fully understood, may lead to tubular fluid osmolality with mannitol rise too high, resulting in renal tubular epithelial cell injury . pathological manifestations of renal tubular epithelial cell swelling, vacuolization. clinically decreased urine output, or even acute renal failure. permeable kidney disease is common in the elderly and low-sodium reduced renal blood flow, dehydration patients.
 Contraindications
① has been diagnosed with acute tubular necrosis in patients with anuria, including non-responders on the trial of mannitol, mannitol accumulation caused by increased blood volume, increase the burden on the heart;
② severe dehydration were;
③ active intracranial bleeding, because expansion increase the bleeding, but except for intracranial surgery;
④ acute pulmonary edema, or severe lung congestion.

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